DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE (DDD)
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) occurs in the neck and back and is often the result of accumulated damage over time. DDD can lead to localized pain, stiffness, as well as potential nerve irritation. Some degenerated discs can lead to a disc herniation.
DISC HERNIATION & RADICULOPATHY
Disc herniations can cause nerve irritation (Radiculopathy) that will produce pain, numbness, and/or weakness. If the disc herniation is in the neck, it can produce symptoms in the arm. If the disc herniation is in the low back, it can produce leg symptoms, often referred to as Sciatica.
Spondylolisthesis is a condition where a bone in the neck or low back is unstable, sliding out of position in relation to the other bones. This can cause localized neck/back pain with movement as well as symptoms of nerve irritation (Radiculopathy).
LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS
Spinal Stenosis often develops from degeneration of the low back. Disc bulges, disc degeneration, and arthritis combine to reduce room available for the spinal nerves. Patients experience pain, heaviness, numbness, and cramping in their legs when standing or walking. These symptoms often resolve with rest, but patients are severely limited in standing and walking tolerance.
CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY (CSM)
When degeneration in the neck reduces room for the spinal cord, patients can experience issues with balance, coordination, dexterity, numbness, and even issues with bowel/bladder control. These symptoms can be progressive and often benefit from surgery to prevent permanent damage.
SPINE FRACTURES & SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI)
A Spine Fracture is a break or disruption in the bones of the neck or back. Often due to a high-energy injury, like a car accident, the spinal nerves can be injured if the bone moves sufficiently out of place. The spinal cord and nerves can be damaged which can lead to pain, weakness, numbness, and paralysis. Often times, a brace or surgery is required to stabilize the spinal column to prevent further damage. Special rehabilitation is available for SCI.
COMPRESSION FRACTURE & OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis is a loss of bone density that can make the bones weak and brittle. It is important to treat osteoporosis to prevent fractures. Osteoporosis is measured by a DEXA scan and can occur with age and other medical conditions. Vertebral Compression Fractures are the most common osteoporosis-related fracture and are marked by pain and a slouched posture due to collapse in the height of the spinal column. These can occur from low-energy mechanisms such as a ground-level fall.
SCOLIOSIS & SPINAL DEFORMITY
Scoliosis refers to an abnormal curvature of the spinal column. There are different causes for Scoliosis, and the severity of abnormal curvature can vary. Mild forms of Scoliosis may not require any treatment. Bracing and surgery are options for more severe forms that are producing symptoms of pain and nerve compression.
While Spine Tumors are rare, when they do occur, Spine Tumors most often represent metastatic disease - a spread of tumor from another part of the body. Patients can develop pain, fracture, spinal instability, and nerve irritation. Treatment requires coordination between Oncology, Radiation Oncology, and Spine Surgery physicians. Surgery is often needed to stabilize the spinal column, protect nerves, relieve pain, and improve prognosis.